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Miksi venäläiset eivät hymyile?


Miksi venäläiset eivät hymyile?

Venäläiset näyttävät eurooppalaisen silmin vakavalta, hymyttömältä porukalta. Hymyttömyys on yksi näkyvimpiä kulttuurieroja esim. suomalaiseen kulttuuriin verrattuna, jossa hymyllä ilmaistaan usein kohteliaisuutta.

Mutta kyllä venäläiset hymyilevät, etenkin ihmisille, jotka tuntevat. Venäläisille hymyn merkitys on erilainen eri tilanteissa. Hymy merkitsee venäläiselle poikkeusta huolestuneisuuden olotilaan – hyvinvointia, vaurautta ja hyvää tuulta.
Hymy ei ole kohteliaisuuden ele Venäjällä vaan sitä käytetään vain soveliaissa tilanteissa ja sillä aidosti ja rehellisesti näytetään oikeaa tunnetta. Alla Voronezhin yliopiston lingvistiikan ja stilistiikan osaston johtajan Josif Sterninin analyysi tyypillisistä hymyistä ja hymyttömyydestä Venäjällä:

1. Hymyillään suu kiinni
Useimmiten venäläiset hymyilevät suu kiinni, mahdollisesti vain hieman ylähampaita näyttäen, sillä hampaiden näyttäminen on venäläisten mielestä vulgaaria, koska se saa hymyilevän muistuttamaan eläintä, esim. hevosta.

2. Hymy ei ole kohteliaisuusele
Koska venäläisessä viestinnässä hymy ei ole kohteliaisuusele, jatkuvaa hymyilyä pidetään alamaisen eleenä eli ”palvelijan käytöksenä”. Se taas tarkoittaa epärehellisyyttä, salailua tai haluttomuutta näyttää oikeita tunteitaan.
Euroopassa taas hymyllä ilmaistaan vastaanottavaisuutta ja avoimuutta sekä tervehtiessä että keskustelun aikana.

3. Venäjällä ei hymyillä tuntemattomille
Hymy säästetään tutuille. Siksi uudet (tuntemattomat) asiakkaat eivät useinkaan saa myyjiltä hymyä kaupoissa, tutuille asiakkaille kyllä hymyillään.

4. Hymyyn vastaaminen hymyllä
Venäläinen ei automaattisesti vastaa hymyyn takaisin. Jos vastapuoli vastaa hymyllä, se usein tarkoittaa kutsua tulla juttelemaan.

5. Hymy välittämisen eleenä
Venäläiselle hymy merkitsee sitä, että sen antaja välittää hänestä. Hymy vieraalle voi herättää kysymyksen: ”Tunnemmeko toisemme?”.

6. Hymy työtehtäviä hoitaessa
Venäjällä ei kuulu hymyillä, kun tehdään työtä tai suoritetaan tärkeää tehtävää. Tullivirkailijat ovat suorittamassa tärkeää tehtävää. Sama koskee myyjiä ja tarjoilijoita . Myöskään lasten ei kuulu hymyillä koulutunneilla. Yksi yleisimmistä opettajan kommenteissa koulutunnilla on: “Mille sinä oikein hymyilet? Kirjoita.”

7. Aito tunne
Venäläiseen kollektiiviseen kulttuuriin kuuluu sääntö, että hymyllä ilmaistaan oikeasti hyvää tuulta ja hyvää suhdetta. Kun venäläinen hymyilee sinulle, hän oikeasti pitää sinusta tai on hyvällä tuulella kyseisellä hetkellä.

8. Hymy ilman syytä
Muiden pitää ymmärtää hymyn syy. Jolleivät ymmärrä, he ihmettelevät, mitä hymyn takana on. Hymy ilman syytä voidaan tulkita ”yksinkertaisuuden osoitukseksi”.

9. Hyväksyttävä hymy
Läsnäolijoiden pitää hyväksyä hymy soveliaaksi tilanteeseen. Ei ole hyväksyttävää hymyillä vaikeassa tilanteessa tai kun on tiedossa, että jollakin läsnäolijalla on vaikea elämäntilanne, vaikeuksia, sairautta tai muita henkilökohtaisia ongelmia. ”Mitäs siinä hymyilet?”
Eurooppalaiset voivat ihmetellä, miksi esimerkiksi illanvietoissa hymyillään ja esim. firman juhlien käytöskoodiin kuuluu hauskanpito.

10. Nauru hymynä

Venäläisillä hymyn ja naurun ero on pieni: usein ne ovat sama asia. Venäläiset usein kysyvät hymyilijöiltä: “Mikäs noin hauskaa on?”
Mutta pitää muistaa, että asiat muuttuvat, kun kulttuurien väliset kohtaamiset lisääntyvät. Mitä enemmän venäläiset matkustavat ja tekevät kauppaa ulkomailla, joissa hymyllä on toisenlainen merkitys kohteliaan käytöksen eleenä, tulee hymynkin merkitys muuttumaan myös Venäjällä.

-Pia Kähärä

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